The colon is used to mark the start of a list, but also to separate two parts of a sentence, where the second half illustrates a statement made in the first half.
'The country remains divided: rich and poor, the employed and the unemployed.'
Used to indicate the possessive or show that some letters have been omitted.
'It's Angela's turn to wash the dishes.'
See how the apostrophe is used in two different ways - as 'it is' and to denote that it's Angela whose turn it is.
Its - Belonging to it.
It's - It is.
Inverted commas (' ') and Quotation Marks (" ")
Inverted commas are used to show that a word is used to mean something slightly different from the usual -'so called'.
Quotation marks are used to indicate a quote.